The BA22-DE is a compact yet powerful 32-bit processor for deeply embedded applications. It is a Harvard-style processor able to run at relatively high clock frequencies (more than 800MHz in 28nm), with a surprisingly small silicon footprint (base version is just 15K gates). Highly configurable to allow a variety of size/performance trade-offs, the BA22-DE can be used as a microcontroller in numerous applications, including mixed signal processing, portable and wireless devices, and automotive systems.
The BA22-DE uses separate instruction and data buses, and it has a pipeline depth of 4 or 5 stages depending on its configuration. The processor connects to the system via AMBA® AHB™, AXI4™, or Wishbone interfaces. It is also equipped with dedicated Quick Memory (QMEM) interfaces to tightly-coupled memories, which offer fast and deterministic access to code and data, and can be used for inter-core communication in a multi-core architecture. Its base version includes 16 to 32 general-purpose registers (GPRs), a tick-timer (TTimer), a programmable interrupt controller (PIC), an advanced power management unit (PMU), and optionally a debug unit (DBGU). The core’s processing capabilities can be enhanced further with the optional hardware multiplier (MUL), divider (DIV), Multiply-Accumulate (MAC), IEEE 754 compliant floating-point, and DSP instructions acceleration units. Its interrupt response time can also be optimized with the addition of a Vectored Interrupt controller (VIC).
The BA22-DE supports the variable instruction length BA2 instruction set, benefits from its extreme code density, and is binary compatible with other members of the BA2x processor family. Programming is facilitated with the included C/C++ tool chain, Eclipse IDE, architectural simulator, and ported C libraries. Advanced debugging capabilities and off-the-shelf development boards can further ease software development.
Additional microcontroller peripherals may be ordered for pre-integration and delivery with the core, individually or in a complete platform. IP Integration Services are also available to help integrate any BA22 processor configuration with memory controllers, image compression, or other CAST IP cores.
Part of the royalty-free BA2x family, the BA22-DE processor core has been designed for easy reuse and integration, has been rigorously verified, and is production proven.
- High Performance 32-bit CPU
- 2.93 CoreMarks/MHz
- Single-cycle execution on most instructions
- Fast interrupt response
- Optional hardware multiply, divide, multiply-accumulate, DSP instructions acceleration, and floating point units.
- Low Power Consumption
- Industry-leading code density minimizes instruction memory area & power
- Small silicon footprint (from 11,000 sq. um in 28 nm technology, or 15K eq. gates) consumes less leakage energy
- Flexible Memory Access
- Tightly-coupled Quick Memory for fast and deterministic code and/or data access
- Instruction and/or data memories can also be connected to the AHB, AXI4 or Wishbone bus
- Optional Memory Protection Unit
- Efficient Power Management
- Dynamic clock gating and power shut-off of unused units
- Software- and hardware-controlled clock frequency
- Wake-up on tick timer or external interrupt
- Advanced Debug Capability
- Non-intrusive debug/trace for both CPU and system
- Complex chained watchpoint and breakpoint conditions
- Standard JTAG and proprietary Two-Wire Debug interfaces
- Integrated Peripherals
- Base configuration includes a 32 bit-wide tick timer and a programmable interrupt controller
- Optionally pre-integrated with AMBA bus infrastructure, Vectored interrupt controller, DMAs, GPIOs, UARTS, Timers, SPI, I2C, memory controller and other IP cores from CAST
- Easy Software Development
- Eclipse IDE for Windows, Linux
- ANSI C/C++ compiler, debugger, linker, assembler, & utilities
- Architectural simulator
- Ported libraries & RTOS
- The core is available for ASICs in synthesizable Verilog source code or for FPGAs in optimized netlists. It includes everything required for successful implementation: extensive documentation, a testbench, a sample SoC design, sample synthesis and simulation scripts, and the BeyondStudio™ Eclipse-based software development IDE for Windows and Linux.
- Reference designs on FPGA boards are also available; contact CAST Sales for information.
- Mixed signal embedded processing
- Portable and wireless
- Internet, networking and telecom
- Home entertainment consumer electronics
Block Diagram of the 32-bit Deeply Embedded Processor